September 19, 2016

Principles governing trade and transport

Countries have resources to support their economy and to feed their people, but often they either do not have enough resources or there is an absence of certain resources. To make up for any shortfall in resources, various commodities have to be imported, i.e. those commodities have to be brought […]
September 19, 2016

Major global areas of supply and demand

The major industrialised countries (see the map below showing the industrialised regions) are consumers of raw materials (e.g. iron ore, coal, oil, a range of other minerals) and, because there are large concentrations of people in those countries, they also need to import large amounts of food (e.g. grain, fruit). […]
September 19, 2016

Factors influencing trade fluctuations

See also Lesson 11.2.2  Ship Chartering (“Hiring” a Ship) The level of trade rises and falls, depending on a number of factors : Global or regional economic changes – If the world or a region is experiencing an economic boom, its export trade will flourish. Money will be available to […]
September 19, 2016

Procedures pertaining to shipping containers

In moving cargo, many international procedures and rules about documentation have to be followed carefully. Among important aspects relating to cargo imports and exports are the following: Customs – Every country has regulations relating to what may be brought into the country and whether a “duty” (a state-imposed fee) will […]